We study elementary particles at very high energies with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, in search for answers to fundamental questions such as: Do all fundamental forces unify? Is there evidence for quantum gravity and extra dimensions? Are micro black holes potentially created in high-energy proton collisions? Are there new generations of particles and forces amongst them? Is there a candidate particle for dark matter?
Students in our group analyze data from the LHC to reconstruct certain particle processes e.g. the so called Higgs boson. Computers are the main tool for these analyses. Graduate students learn about and apply different particle detection techniques and statistical analysis methods. We open new avenues by developing smart search strategies to not overlook any exciting corner where new physics could show up.
The group has helped build, install, and now operates a new instrument as part of the CMS detector at CERN that measures inclusively the rate of particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the LHC to derive the luminosity that is essential to all particle searches. It is based on fast silicon pixel detectors. We are now working towards an upgrade of this and the larger pixel detector of CMS. Furthermore, we study new detection technologies that can withstand the ever increasing intensity of the LHC. These are pixel detectors based on artificial diamond where three- dimensional electrodes are introduced via lasers and ion etching. For this we project collaborate with Nuclear Engineering department at UTK. Prototypes are tested in the laboratory at UT and in test beams at Fermilab and CERN. These activities provide opportunity for hands-on experience and results in several instrumentation papers and conference contributions.
Contact: Prof. Stefan M. Spanier, email@example.com or telephone: (865) 974-0597.
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the world's most powerful accelerator-based neutron scattering facility. The SNS accelerator combines the world's first superconducting proton linac with a record-breaking high intensity proton accumulator ring, resulting in tremendous research opportunities in the field of accelerator physics. The accelerator physics group is seeking qualified graduate students interested in doing research in the following areas:
- Computational, theoretical and experimental studies of the dynamics of high-intensity charged particle beams, with emphasis on multi-particle and collective effects
- Development of superconducting cavity technology
- Development of laser-beam interaction technology such as H- laser-assisted injection stripping.
The research program offers hardware oriented, hands-on research opportunities, and computational and theoretical opportunities. All research avenues involve designing and executing experiments with the SNS high intensity proton beam. More information can be found at http://neutrons.ornl.gov/.
Interested candidates should contact one of the following UT adjunct faculty:
Cellular biophysics studies organization and molecular processes in living cells. While living cells are very complex entities our understanding of these building blocks of life has become increasingly quantitative over the years. Thanks to this trend cellular biophysics has become an exciting research area for physicists from various backgrounds. In one hand physics based novel experimental methods and tools have potential to tremendously advance research in this discipline. This includes novel implementations of lab-on-chip platform, imaging techniques and quantitative image analysis methods, which we actively develop. On the other hand, physics based models and theories are making big advances in describing inner workings of cells. This applies in particular to the simplest organisms, the bacteria, which we study. Can we understand these simple cells from the basic principles of physics similar to the level of details we understand the organization and behavior of atoms in one day? In approaching this ultimate goal, we carry out quantitative studies of self-organizing processes related to cell division proteins, DNA and bacterial cell wall. Specifically, we seek answers to the following questions: How bacterial cells position cell division proteins? How is bacterial DNA organized and what role it plays in cell division process? How robust are these cellular processes to perturbations in cell shape?
In addressing these exciting fundamental questions we use experimental methods and numerical modeling. In experiments, we combine optical live cell imaging down to single molecule resolution with cell handling and manipulation using micro- and nanoscale fabricated structures. To engineer these structures we use Nanofabrication Research Laboratory's cleanroom facility at ORNL. In explaining the cellular processes we use numerical models based on statistical mechanics, polymer physics and theory of elasticity.
For more information visit our Lab's Web site or contact Dr. Jaan Mannik (e-mail: JMannik@utk.edu). An interested and motivated physics Ph. D. student is welcomed to join this multidisciplinary research effort.
One of the most active areas of research in physics is Condensed Matter. A variety of investigations in recent years have unveiled interesting complex phenomena in several materials, that challenge our understanding of solids and may also lead to technological applications. Prominent among these developments are the areas of (1) High Temperature Superconductors, with critical temperatures that have reached over 150 K and with exotic pairing properties, (2) Colossal Magnetoresistance Manganites, with changes in DC current of many orders of magnitude upon the application of small magnetic fields, and (3) Nanosystems, where quantum effects play a key role. Some members of the Condensed Matter Theory group carry out investigations in these fields and several related ones. The main tools to analyze models for these materials involve computational techniques, since typically there are no small parameters to guide a perturbative expansion, but analytical calculations are also performed. The broad area of investigations outlined in this paragraph is usually referred to as Strongly Correlated Electrons. This field of investigations is also much related with the popular area called Complexity, due to recently unveiled similarities between soft and hard materials.
The UT/Physics Department group working in this research context has a high international visibility, and publishes in prestigious journals such as Physical Review Letters, Science, Physics World, and others. For a list of recent publications see http://sces.phys.utk.edu. The group consists of two professors (Distinguished Professor E. Dagotto and Professor A. Moreo), and several students and postdocs. We receive the frequent visits of collaborators from the US and abroad.
A variety of clusters of PCs are available for the application of computational methods to the study of the materials described above. This includes clusters located at both UT and ORNL, and the combined number of PCs as of April 2005 was close to 300.
The group has a strong relation with the Theory Group of the Condensed Matter Sciences Division (CMSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
The research of the low-energy experimental nuclear physics group is focused on the properties of exotic short-lived nuclei and their reactions which are of consequence for the synthesis of the elements in the cosmos. Our group is very active in detector development and has played a leading role in developing charged-particle detector arrays (such as ORRUBA, see http://www.orau.org/stewardship/), a neutron detector array, VANDLE (see http://vandle.oit.utk.edu/vandlewiki/INTRODUCTION) and high efficiency gamma-ray array MTAS (http://pigpen.oit.utk.edu/mtaswiki). We are currently developing a scintillator array for detecting gamma rays called HAGRiD, based on new generation scintillator material LaBr3(Ce) (see http://www.detectors.saint-gobain.com/Brillance380.aspx). A particular strength of the group is the tradition of use of digital data acquisition techniques. Students entering the group will be involved in both hardware development and cutting-edge nuclear physics experiments.
Our experiments are run at national user facilities such as the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, with new experimental programs starting at TRIUMF in Canada, and Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois.
Decay of the most exotic nuclei
One main focus of our group is exploratory research on the most exotic nuclei that can be synthesized. We develop ultra-sensitive detection techniques, and then employ them in discovery experiments at very low production rates. We investigate phenomena that occur only in very unstable isotopes, for example, beta-delayed neutron emission using the VANDLE detector. Our expertise in digital electronics has allowed us to engage recently in the super-heavy element research program, a newly re-open nuclear physics frontier.
Direct reaction techniques include transferring a single nucleon or multiple nucleons, knocking out a nucleon, or simply scattering a nucleus on a target, and are very sensitive to the structure of the nucleus. Recent developments have allowed these techniques to be used with beams of exotic nuclei, some of which are important to understand reactions in stars or in explosive scenarios, such as novae or supernovae.
Please visit us on the web: http://www.phys.utk.edu/expnuclear/ for more information.
Our goal is to address such questions as the origin of Time Reversal Non-invariance, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the Big Bang by studying the particle properties of the neutron. Using the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL as well as other intense neutron sources such NIST's research reactor and the Institut Laue Langevin's (Grenoble, France) high flux reactor, we address such experimental questions as the neutron electric dipole moment, the free neutron lifetime, and the details of parity violation in nuclear processes. The work involves a wide variety of techniques including charged and neutral particle detection, ultra-low temperature cryogenic system, polarized beams, etc. This work should appeal to experimentalists who enjoy hands on physics as well as broad theoretical ideas.
Further information is available online at: http://neutrons.ornl.gov/
The research of the low-energy nuclear theory group at UT concerns the study of nuclei and nuclear astrophysics, which addresses the origin of the elements, the structure and limits of nuclei, and the evolution of the cosmos. The main questions for this field are: What binds protons and neutrons into stable nuclei and rare isotopes? What is the origin of simple patterns in complex nuclei? When and how did the elements from iron to uranium originate? What causes stars to explode? The new and exciting frontier in nuclear theory lies in the description of rare and short-lived nuclei. These nuclei have unusual ratios of neutrons to protons. In this unique situation, important inter-nucleon interactions are isolated and amplified. The weak binding of neutron-to-proton asymmetric systems add additional flavor to the nuclear many-body problem. Exciting new properties are, e.g. neutron halos, proton radioactivity, and changes in shell structure.
The UT/ORNL nuclear theory group consists of Drs. D. J. Dean, G. Hagen, T. Papenbrock, several long- and short-term visitors, postdoctoral associates, and students. We investigate many aspects of the nuclear many-body problem with particular emphasis on rare isotopes. We employ microscopic methods (involving density functional theory, coupled cluster theory, Monte Carlo simulation, and shell model diagonalizations), and tackle theoretical challenges with pencil and paper, PCs, and the world's most powerful supercomputers. We also apply our ideas to other many-body problems, e.g., to ultracold atom gases. For more details, please see the titles of our recent publications, and come to our seminar. The group has several international visitors each year, and collaborates with experimental nuclear physicists at UT and ORNL. A few potential projects are described below.
First-principles nuclear structure calculations with the coupled-cluster method
We are using the coupled-cluster methods for first-principles calculations of selected nuclei that are of current experimental and theoretical interest. Within this approach, a similarity-transformed Hamiltonian is constructed that decouples from few-particlefew-hole excitations. The application of this method involves diagrammatic derivations, and a numerical implementation of the derived expressions. Students working in this area would actively participate in code development and calculations for relevant benchmark nuclei. The scientific questions we address relate to the role of three-nucleon forces in nuclei, and the evolution of shell structure in exotic nuclei.
Contact: Dr. Thomas Papenbrock at firstname.lastname@example.org.
When in 1930 Wolfgang Pauli invented neutrino particles for the explanation of beta-decay experiments he bet a case of champagne that nobody ever would be able to detect these particles. Nowdays detection of neutrinos is a field of precision experimentation in Physics: we recently learned in our KamLAND experiment that neutrinos have masses and can transform from one type to another. The next set of questions to study in neutrino experiments are the hierarchy of neutrino masses and whether CP-symmetry is violated in neutrino interactions. Such a violation might be a mechanism of cosmological leptogenesis and an explanation of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe.
The key to such measurements is the determination of an important mixing angle theta_13 between the neutrino mass eigenstates.Theta_13 will be measured in the "Double Chooz" experiment that is being constructed at a nuclear power plant in France and where UT is participating in the construction of the first of two neutrino detectors. We invite interested graduate students to participate in the construction of the second Double Chooz detector in France next year and also in the following neutrino measurements and data analysis in the international team of researchers. We anticipate a PhD project to be ready in 2012.
We also invite graduate students to participate in another neutrino project, NOvA, where a 2 GeV neutrino beam will be directed from the NuMI source at FermiLab to the huge, 15kt, detector to be constructed in Minnesota at a distance of 810 km from the neutrino production target at FermiLab. This experiment will be able to compare neutrinos with antineutrinos produced by the particle beams, will determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and observe possible CP-violation effects. We expect the student to be involved in the initial tests of the detector prototype in neutrino beam at FermiLab starting next year, but also in simulations, and data analysis. Expected PhD project completion is 2012-2013.
We know that neutrino has very small but nonzero mass. Howeverits value never been measured. "Majorana" double beta decay experiment could have enough sensitivity to measure it. We are looking for a graduate student who like to get his/her hands on experience working with ultra pure materials in the state of the art sensitivity range. Work will include extensive communication with other members of the large Majorana collaboration between dozen of Universities and three US National Laboratories.
Further information is available online at the following sites:
- KamLAND Web page in Japan: http://www.awa.tohoku.ac.jp/KamLAND/index.html
- Double Chooz experiment in France: http://doublechooz.in2p3.fr/Status_and_News/status_and_news.php
- NOvA experiment at FermiLab: http://www-nova.fnal.gov/. [See the write-up on the NOvA experiment in Symmetry, a joint publication of Fermilab and SLAC.]
- Majorana experiment at DUSEL: http://majorana.npl.washington.edu/
Contacts: For "Double Chooz" and "NOvA," contact Dr. Yuri Kamyshkov, office 505 in the Nielsen Physics Building, telephone 865-974-6777 or e-mail email@example.com. For "KamLAND" and "Majorana," contact Dr. Yuri Efremenko, office 503 in Nielsen Physics Building, telephone 865-974-7857 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
The Quantum Technologies Group is exploring the bizarre world of quantum mechanics. Its properties, such as superposition, coherence, entanglement, teleportation, etc., have given rise to various paradoxes (Schrodinger's cat, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, etc.). Back in the early '80s, Feynman was among the first to suggest that these principles may enable us to process information at much faster speeds than any classical computer. Ever since, people have been trying to harness the power of quantum mechanics and build a quantum computer. This subject is still in its infancy, but already industry giants, such as Microsoft, IBM and Google, are trying to make use of a quantum computer. Another promising application of quantum mechanics is in cryptography. It provides unprecedented means of transmitting encrypted information over a public channel. Quantum information and quantum computation are rapidly developing arenas of basic as well as applied research. The group performs research at both UT and ORNL, and anticipates several RA position openings in both theory and experiment.
For more information, e-mail: email@example.com
The research of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics (RHIP) group is focused on the study of nuclear matter at extreme temperatures and densities, which is a new and exciting field on the borderline between nuclear and high energy physics. At these extreme conditions of temperature and density nuclear matter will undergo a phase transition to a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In this new phase nuclear matter no longer consists primarily of protons and neutrons, but instead consists of deconfined quarks and gluons in a state that mostly resembles a superfluid liquid. Experimentally, we are creating high temperature nuclear matter by colliding heavy nuclei (heavy ions) at very high energies (ultrarelativistic energies) at nuclear accelerators.
Specifically, we are working within two large collaborations: the PHENIX Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, New York, and the ALICE Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. We also collaborate closely with researchers in the High Energy Reactions Group in the Physics Division at ORNL.
In general, the RHIP group has two to four students involved in our research at different stages in their graduate studies, a post-doc, and three professors, Christine Nattrass, Ken Read and Soren Sorensen. Interested students are always welcome to contact us, so please do not hesitate to check us out at: http://www.phys.utk.edu/rhip/ or contact us directly through the contact info at: http://www.phys.utk.edu/rhip/RHIP_People.htm. We are in particular looking for students with an interest in working within large collaborations at the cutting edge of science and technology and with an interest and willingness to travel extensively to the large accelerator centers in New York and Switzerland.
Soft Matter Physics is a relatively new but very fast growing and exciting field of Physics. It studies phenomena in complex materials with many degrees of freedom and strong interplay between enthalpy and entropy. These materials have broad applications from energy to biomedical fields. There are four major direction of research in our group:
Polymer Dynamics, Glass Transition: Molecular motion is the key to many macroscopic properties of soft materials (polymers, colloids, glass-forming and biological systems, etc.). The main goal of our studies in this direction is fundamental understanding of molecular motions and their relationship to macroscopic properties of polymers and other glass-forming materials. Among the major topics, we study the glass transition phenomenon, viscoelastic and mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, influence of chemical structure of the molecules on the dynamics and macroscopic properties of the materials.
Dynamics of Biological Macromolecules: Activity and function of biological systems are defined by their dynamics. Understanding the basic parameters that control molecular motions in biological systems, and understanding the relationship between molecular dynamics and biological functions are the main goals of our research in this direction. Among major topics, we also study role of solvents in protein dynamics, activity and stability and we are developing formulations for long-term preservation of biological molecules.
Nano-composite and Nano-structured Materials: Addition of small nano-particles to polymers can tremendously affect their properties. We study the influence of nano-fillers (carbon nano-tubes, silica and polymeric particles, graphene) on mechanical and electrical properties of polymers, their dynamics and glass transition. We also study how confinement to small volume (various nanostructures) affects mechanical properties and dynamics of the materials. We analyze various kinds of nano-structures, including polymeric and biological (e.g. viruses).
Nano-optics, Plasmonics: We are developing scanning nano-Raman spectroscopy based on the apertureless near-field optics. It employs gigantic local enhancement of electrical field of light by plasmonic (particular metallic) structures. We already achieved Raman imaging of semiconducting structures with spatial resolution ~20 nm, far beyond the diffraction limit of light. We are also developing plasmonic structures for molecular-level sensing based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering. In our studies we use neutron and light scattering techniques, dielectric and mechanical relaxation spectroscopy, and we actively collaborate with groups performing MD-simulations. Our group is a part of Soft Materials Group at ORNL.
Talented students who are not afraid of scientific challenges are welcome to join our group: please see our Web site at: http://www.chem.utk.edu/sokolov/index.html.
Alexei P. Sokolov
Governor's Chair, Professor of Chemistry and Physics
663 Buehler Hall, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The best way to contact me is via e-mail.